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Duodenal Switch

Duodenal Switch

Duodenal Switch is both a restrictive and malabsorptive bariatric surgery procedure intended for weight loss. The restrictive part of the operation involves the removal of approximately 70-75% of the stomach and a large proportion of the duodenum. For this restriction, first the left side of the patient’s stomach is removed. As a result, the stomach turns into a thin, long sleeve. This is an irrevocable step of the procedure. The most important step of the procedure involves the rerouting of a long section of the small intestine, in such a way as to create two separate paths and a joint channel. The shorter one of these two paths created is the portion of the small intestine that will deliver things coming from the stomach to the channel. The longer portion of the small intestine is the part that leads to greater absorption, where bile and other digestive enzymes get mix with foods. In short, these regulations are intended to selectively limit the fat absorption, by shortening the time of the body’s caloric intake from the foods in the small intestine. Within 2 years after Duodenal Switch surgery, patients lose two-thirds of their excess weight. This is a surgical procedure more invasive than other bariatric procedures. However, more effective weight losses are observed thanks to this procedure.

What can I eat after Duodenal Switch?

You can eat small frequent meals after Duodanal Switch. This is because your new and small stomach cannot intake big meals.  Similarly, your stomach cannot tolerate large amounts of fat, alcohol or sugar. Therefore, if you want to get through the surgery with minimal complications, you will need to definitely reduce your fat intake and consume less fast foods, sugar-containing cakes, frozen foods, desserts, cookies and candies.

How much weight will I be able lose after Duodenal Switch?

Within two years (on average) after Duodenal Switch surgery, you lose two-thirds of your excess weight. This is a surgical procedure more invasive than other bariatric procedures. However, it provides more effective weight loss than other procedures.

What are the advantages of Duodenal Switch surgery?

Since the stomach is given a tubular shape, food intake becomes limited after surgery; and since the last 250 cm of the small intestine is used for food passage, absorption becomes limited as well. In this way, you have the advantage of achieving more effective weight loss. Since the valve at the exit of the stomach will be kept intact, bile leakage and the associated gastric ulcer will not be experienced. Because this valve is preserved, signs such as low blood pressure, fainting and vomiting due to the passage of foods into the small intestine, i.e. Damping Syndrome will not be seen. The inaccessible nonfunctional portion of the stomach is not left in the body, as in other bypass operations. Duodenal Switch operations are known to be one of the most effective procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity and control of diabetes. Switching to this procedure will be very simple for those who regain weight over a long term after sleeve gastrectomy.

Does Duodenal Switch surgery have any disadvantage? If so, what are they?

As in all malabsorptive procedures, electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies can also be seen in this surgical procedure.

Sleeve Gastrectomy

Sleeve Gastrectomy

Sleeve Gastrectomy is also known as Gastric Sleeve In the surgical procedure, a large portion of the stomach (approximately 80%) is removed with intent to reduce the gastric volume. Since the food intake is limited with the stomach reduction, the patient loses weight. The stomach that normally looks like a sac will take the shape of a thin and long sleeve after this procedure. The surgically removed part of the stomach is taken out of the body, in an irrevocable way. This surgically removed part of the stomach includes the part producing ghrelin, i.e. the hunger hormone that stimulates the hypothalamus region of the brain. In this way, the patient’s feeling of hunger will decrease but will not be lost completely. In sleeve gastrectomy operations, the stomach valves called the ‘pyloric valves’, which regulate the emptying of the stomach, are preserved. Since these valves are preserved, there will be no change in the digestive system. However, you will experience the feeling of satiety more quickly, by eating less amount of food. People who have undergone sleeve gastrectomy can reach the feeling of fullness by eating less than normal, thanks to their reduced stomach. Sleeve gastrectomy surgery is intended to enable the person to lose weight by eating less and consuming healthier foods. Sleeve gastrectomy can be performed with both open and closed methods.

What are the points that I need to take into consideration before sleeve gastrectomy?

In general, hospitalization 24 hours prior to the time of bariatric surgery is recommended. You should also follow a liquid diet and avoid solid foods for 24 hours before surgery. You should completely stop eating from 12 o’clock at night. You should stop oral liquid intake 8 hours prior to the time of your surgery.

What are the advantages of sleeve gastrectomy?

The advantages sleeve gastrectomy provides are the narrowed the gastric passageway, ability to feel satiety with a small amount of food, reduced appetite, and balanced nutrition. Compared to gastric bypass surgery, sleeve gastrectomy is easier, takes shorter, and requires a shorter hospital stay. Sleeve gastrectomy can also be turned into some other bariatric surgery procedures, when required.

Who are suitable candidates for sleeve gastrectomy?

A person who complains of his/her overweight may be or may not be suitable for having sleeve gastrectomy. For being able to have this surgical procedure, he/she should be aged between 18 and 65, and have a body mass index of above 35-40. The person is considered to be a suitable candidate for sleeve gastrectomy if he/she has cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and serious health problems due to his/her excess weight; if he/she is not alcohol and drug addicted; if his/her psychological state does not pose an obstacle to life style change; if he/she is able to overcome surgical stress; if his/her health status is suitable; and if he/she cannot lose weight with any procedure other than surgical procedure.

How much weight will I be able lose after sleeve gastrectomy?

If you eat healthily and do regular exercise after sleeve gastrectomy, you can achieve 65-80% weight loss within 1 year after surgery. However, if you cannot consolidate your eating habits and cannot eat healthily, you may experience 5% weight regain in the course of time.

What will I experience after sleeve gastrectomy?

You can get up 1-2 hours after your transfer from the operating room to your bed. After the first postoperative day, you can take a shower by covering your medical dressing with protective covers. You can return to work after resting about a week after surgery. If you have a job that requires physical activity, you are advised to return to work after 30 days.

Mini Gastric Bypass

Mini Gastric Bypass

Among bariatric surgery procedures, Mini Gastric Bypass is the easiest and most economical surgical procedure that can be performed in the shortest time. Mini Gastric Bypass surgery provides as much weight loss as the other bypass surgeries. It can control certain conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, the leading sign of metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The most basic logic in this surgical procedure is that it reduces the volume of the stomach. However, it also involves the bypass of the portion of the small intestine that provides absorption at the exit of the stomach. The bypass procedure is performed by establishing an anastomotic connection between intestine and the stomach. Bypassing this portion of the small intestine, which provides absorption, supports rapid weight loss, and the treatment of hyper tension, cholesterol, and diabetes. It has favorable effects on elderly patients. Mini Gastric Bypass is a surgical procedure performed completely with closed methods. It involves incisions shorter than 1 centimeter. The laparoscope and other instruments required for surgery are placed into the abdomen through these incisions. These are specially manufactured instruments produced in dimensions allowing for their insertion through these incisions. A small tube is formed at the entrance of the stomach, and is separated from the rest of the stomach. The portion of the stomach to be used after surgery is this part. No organ is cut and removed during surgery. The newly formed stomach is connected to the small intestine to ensure the foods to pass to the intestine by bypassing its upper portion. This constitutes the second part of the operation.

Who are candidates for Mini Gastric Bypass surgery?

For Mini Gastric Bypass surgery, you should have a body mass index of 35 and over. This surgical procedure takes 30 to -60 minutes. You can be discharged 24 hours after surgery.

How can weight lose be achieved with Mini Gastric Bypass?

With Mini Gastric Bypass, it is possible to lose weight in three different ways. These are reduction of the gastric volume, restriction of absorption, and hormonal regulation. With the first way, i.e. the reduction of the gastric volume, the food servings will also be reduced. In the second way, i.e. the restriction of absorption, the upper portion of the small intestine (about 200 cm in length) is excluded from the process of food passage. Bearing bile and other fluids responsible for digestion and absorption is the task of this excluded (bypassed) portion. Thanks to this absorption restriction, you lose weight to a great extent, and maintain the achieved weight for a long time. In the third way, i.e. hormonal regulation, the fact that the stomach remains passive inside has an effect on weight loss. Because the foods eaten cannot pass to this part, it will not be stimulated and consequently lose its effectiveness. As a result, this will reduce the release of ghrelin, the ‘hunger hormone’.

How are the stomach and the small intestine connected to each other?

The stomach and the small intestine are connected to each other with special staples.  These staples are specially produces tools suitable for closed method. They connect the stomach to the intestine in such a way as to create an opening between them for food passage. This newly created opening is called anastomosis.

When can I be discharged after mini gastric bypass surgery?

You can stand up 4 hours after the Mini Gastric Bypass surgery, and can begin to take nourishment orally after the first postoperative 24 hours. If the results of your follow-ups and examinations do not indicate any problem, you can be discharged after given dietary instructions 3 days after surgery.

How should I take nourishment after the mini- gastric bypass surgery?

After the Mini Gastric Bypass, you will need to follow your personal diet program prepared by your dietitian. In general, small amounts of water, apple juice or fruit juices can be given the next day after surgery. Liquid or semi-liquid foods, fat-free milk and yoghurt, soups prepared with yoghurt, fruit purees prepared with yoghurt, fruit purees prepared with yoghurt, mashed legumes, saucepan-cooked dishes, cornflakes prepared with skimmed milk, and fat-free cheeses can be consumed for approximately a month after surgery. In addition, chocolate, honey, cake, dessert, sherbet, ice cream, soda, alcoholic beverage and all sugary foods should be avoided because they cause vomiting.

Gastric Bypass

Gastric Bypass

Gastric Bypass is a surgical weight loss procedure. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia in an operating room. Before undergoing the operation, the patient should have a fasting period of about 8 hours. A day before surgery, blood thinners are administered in adequate doses to prevent blood clotting. A urinary catheter is placed after the patient is anesthetized by the anesthesiologist. Gastric bypass surgery is performed with the laparoscopic method, known as a closed method. A laparoscope, a thin tube equipped with a tiny video camera (30 cm in length) is inserted through several incisions (5 to 10-mm in lengths) made on the skin. Long rods with a structure thinner than a pen are inserted into the abdomen. With the help of these rods and staples, a gastric pouch (3 cm in width and 3 cm in length) is formed in the stomach part adjacent to the esophagus. A point on the small bowel about 200 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz is anastomosed to the gastric pouch (i.e. up to 200cm of the upper part of the intestine is bypassed), with intent to reduce the digestion. The anesthesiologist performs a test called ‘leak test’ by inflating the stomach with blue-stained liquid, to see the firmness of the staple line created between the new stomach pouch and the intestine. This test is also performed with air and sometimes with both air and liquid. The operation is ended without removing any part of the stomach, by suturing the incision sites on the skin.

What is the short description of Gastric Bypass?

Gastric Bypass surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. This surgical procedure is performed to enable people to lose weight with two mechanisms. In a Gastric Bypass surgery, a small stomach volume is created. In addition, the resultant small stomach is anastomosed to the small intestine. The foods coming from the mouth bypass the big stomach and directly pass through the small intestine. This procedure is called Gastric Bypass.

Is gastric bypass a suitable surgical procedure for me?

Gastric Bypass is a surgical procedure suitable for patients with a body mass index of over 35, diabetic patients, and patients who mainly consume sugary foods, alcohol, high calorie snacks and coke.

How long will I stay in the hospital after the gastric bypass surgery?

After surgery, patients usually stay in hospital for a period of 2 to 3 days. After consuming water and liquid foods during this period, you can be discharged if your doctor deems it appropriate.

What will I experience after gastric bypass?

After surgery, you can easily feel full with small amounts of food intake. This fullness will turn into satiety and loss of appetite over time. The needed vitamin and mineral supplements will be taken in accordance with the instructions of the surgeons and dietitians. In this way, you can lose weight very comfortably, without vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

How much weight will I be able lose after the gastric bypass surgery?

You can lose 50-100% of your excess weight within 1 to 2 years after a Gastric Bypass surgery. Your success in weight loss is proportional to your compliance with the post-operative diet and exercise program. After a Gastric Bypass surgery, for example a patient who was 124 kg while entering into the operating room, can lose approximately 50 to 60 kg.

Intragastric Balloon

Intragastric Balloon

Intragastric balloon is a balloon made of silicone, which is endoscopically placed into the stomach. This balloon helps a patient lose approximately 15-20% of his/her body weigh over time. It is the easiest, reliable and non-surgical procedure among procedures performed in the struggle with obesity. Obesity paves the way for high blood pressure, heart failure, joint problems, vascular diseases, stroke and psychological problems rather than aesthetic problems. Therefore, the use of the intragastric balloon has become more common in the treatment of obesity. Intragastric balloon is preferred in super-obese patients with a BMI over 50, for making the surgical site more operable before bariatric surgery and enabling patients to lose 20 to 30 kg. Intragastric balloon treatment is performed by endoscopically placing an inflatable (with liquid of air) balloon into the stomach under anesthesia. The patient is anesthetized during the procedure. This is a simple and effective procedure that takes about 20 minutes. Before the procedure, the patient should have a fasting period of about 8 hours. Before the performance of the intragastric balloon procedure, the patient’s esophagus, stomach and duodenum are endoscopically examined to see whether there is any problem. If the results of the examination are considered to be normal, the process is continued. After this step after, first the deflated intragastric balloon is lubricated with gel and then is delivered into the stomach. The location of the balloon is endoscopically controlled. It is then inflated with 500-700 ml saline plus 10 ml methylene blue, and the process is ended. After the procedure, the patient is kept under medical observation for several hours and then is allowed to go home. With nutrition training, patients begin to eat less and lose weight quickly. After losing adequate weigh to an adequate extent, the balloon in the stomach is endoscopically deflated. After the completion of the treatment process, the intragastric balloon is removed with special endoscopic equipment.

What are the benefits of intragastric balloon?

The intragastric balloon procedure is a non-surgical procedure with a very low risk. It is possible to leave the hospital on the same day, immediately after the procedure. It is not a procedure that will leave a scar on your body. Weight gain after a surgical operation would be a problem because a second operation would be more difficult than the first one. However, such problem is not experienced in the intragastric balloon procedure. If you regain weight after the removal after the balloon, the procedure can be repeated. An intragastric balloon can be adjusted in accordance with the patient’s needs. When deemed necessary, it is possible to increase or decrease the volume of the balloon.

In which conditions the intragastric balloon procedure is not performed?

The intragastric balloon procedure should not be performed in people with psychiatric disorders, alcohol and drug addictions, active stomach and small intestine diseases or gastric ulcer, inflammatory intestinal diseases, intestinal cancer, hematological disorders, severe heart and kidney diseases, and those who use anti‐blood clotting drugs, high-dose anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroids. In addition, intragastric balloon is not used in patients under 18 years of age and over 65 years of age.

How much weight will I be able lose after an intragastric balloon?

An intragastric balloon can make it possible to lose approximately 20 to 25 kg over a period of 6 months.
The most important condition for losing weight with an intragastric balloon is to carry out the procedure definitely in conjunction with a support program. Placing an intragastric balloon will not alone lead to an adequate weight loss. You can achieve this success very easily. by gaining a proper dietary habit.

What will I experience after the placement of the intragastric balloon?

An intragastric balloon is used as a temporary treatment of obesity. It helps lose weight and prevent regaining the weight that has been lost. An intragastric balloon should be left in the stomach for a period not longer than 6 months. After removal of the balloon, the patient should adopt a diet and exercise program suitable for him/her. First of all, he/she should take important steps for a healthy life, by gaining proper dietary habits. If these are not ensured, weight gain may be experienced again.

Will I feel the intragastric balloon after its placement? Will it restrict my ability to eat?

You may experience mild discomforts for a few days after the placement of the intragastric balloon. However, the balloon will then become completely harmonious with your body. There will be no dietary restriction after the procedure? You will notice your inability to eat as much as you previously you did, because of effect of the balloon.

Lasek Surgery

Lasek Surgery

Lasek is performed by removing the epithelium of the eye with the help of alcohol solution. Once the laser is applied, the epithelium is placed back in its site. In Lasek method, extremely safe results are achieved. Burning, stinging and watering problems may occur in the 2 to 3 postoperative days. Within a week, clear vision will be obtained. A clear result can be achieved in the third postoperative month of Lasek treatment. However, patients can continue their normal life without wearing glasses during this period. The primary candidates for the Lasek treatment procedure are patients, who are inoperable in terms of lasik surgery due to their thinner transparent layer.  Lasek treatment can be applied to such patients, regardless of the thickness of the transparent layer. Lasek treatment is one of the laser techniques preferred in the treatment of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. In cases where the cornea is not thick enough for lasik treatment, lasek treatment is applied. In Lasek treatment, the eye is numbed by only numbing drops. The patient feels no pain during the operation. A contact lens is placed on the eye to accelerate the self-renewal process of the epithelium, and protect the eye. A few days after the operation, the contact lens is removed by the doctor.

How is lasek treatment performed?

In a Lasek treatment, first the eye is numbed with the help of numbing drops. The eye contour area is cleaned and covered with a sterile cover. A device called “blepharostat” is placed on the eyelids to prevent blinking. The epithelium, the uppermost layer of the cornea, is made looser with the help of alcohol. The laser application is then started on the cornea. At this stage, the flap of epithelium stripped and folded to the side is placed back onto the cornea. The doctor place a contact lens on the eye, and then antibiotic drops are applied. The blepharostat placed before starting the treatment to prevent blinking is removed, and the operation is completed.

What is the difference of the lasek procedure from the others?

In lasik treatment, a flap is taken from the transparent layer but in lasek treatment, only the epithelium layer is removed. Its difference from the PRK procedure is the fact that the epithelium layer removed in PRK is preserved in the Lasek procedure. This ensures less pain and shorter healing period in the Lasek procedure. Lasek treatment is a simpler procedure compared to lasik treatment. However, its post-treatment period may be a little bit longer than that of the other.

What is the characteristic of the lasek procedure?

The most prominent feature of lasek treatment is its applicability in patients with a cornea thickness inoperable in terms of lasik treatment, although they have a mild visual impairment such as myopia up to -3 D (dioptres) and astigmatism up to 3 D. In Lasek treatment, the eye is numbed with numbing drops. No pain or ache is felt during the operation. After surgery, the doctor places a contact lens on the eye to protect it and accelerate the self-renewal process of the epithelium, and he/she removes it after several days.

What will I experience after lasek treatment?

After lasek treatment, soft non-optical lenses are placed on your eyes to accelerate the healing process. The lenses are removed under the supervision of the doctor, after achieving recovery a few days later. Since lasek treatment is simpler than other procedures, it can be completed within 5 to 10 minutes and causes no pain during operation. Because the healing process of lasek treatment takes a little bit longer, pain, watering, stinging and blurred vision may occur within the 3 to 5 postoperative days. The vision will begin to become clear after a week.

What are the points that I need to take into consideration after lasek treatment?

As with all laser treatments, there is no need to cover the eyes with bandages after lasek treatment. Eye drops to be given after treatment should be used carefully and appropriately. You are advised not to touch your eyes and not take a bath for the first 24 hours. After the 24 hours, you can return to your normal life. Problems such as stinging and watering eyes experienced in the first several hours are quite normal. You can continue your life without complaints a week after surgery.

Relex Smile

Relex Smile

ReLEx (Refractive LEnticule Extraction) SMILE (SMall Incision Lenticule Extaction) is a new non-surgical treatment procedure performed at prestigious clinics in the world. It differs from the classical laser treatment with its characteristics that it does not involve flap taking process and does not require a second laser application. Relex Smile is an ideal procedure performed especially on occupational groups at the risk of being exposed to impact, as well as patients with advanced myopia. Relex Smile, a non-surgical procedure performed to treat myopia and astigmatism in a way specific to the patient, makes it possible to treat myopia of up to −12 D (dioptres) and astigmatism of up to 5 D. The primary advantage of Relex Smile treatment is that it allows for laser operation on thin corneas. In addition, it has some other advantages such as providing better preservation of the corneal biomechanics, easier one-step operation, and results closest to the natural condition. The Relex Smile treatment begins with making a fine lenticule in the cornea by using laser light. The surgeon then removes this tissue, formed to correct the refractive error, through the 3-4 mm incision formed on the cornea. Once he/she corrects the refractive error by removing the lenticule formed in the cornea, the operation is completed. Since it does not involve having a corneal flap, the corneal biomechanics is less affected than other laser surgeries.

What is the short description of Relex Smile?

Relex Smile is a pain-and ache-free non-surgical laser treatment procedure performed at prestigious clinics in the world, in a way specific to the patient. With the Relex Smile procedure, results closest to the natural condition can be achieved, and less eye dryness can be ensured.

What are the features of the Relex Smile procedure?

The primary feature of the Relex Smile procedure is that it allows for a non-surgical operation. Allowing for one step surgery, preservation of the corneal structure, applications on fine corneas, results closest to the natural condition, less eye dryness, safe healing, and applicability for advanced myopia and astigmatism cases are its most important features.
What are the steps of the Relex Smile procedure?

First, a fine lenticule, i.e. a piece of tissue is created on the top transparent layer of the cornea by using laser light. The surgeon then removes this tissue, formed to correct the refractive error, through the 3-4 mm incision formed on the cornea. Once the refractive error is corrected by removing the lenticule formed in the cornea, the operation is completed.

SMILE DESIGN

Smile Design

Smile design is a procedure that allows for providing a smile specific to the face, by a combined practice of dentistry and art. Firstly, a healthy smile is planned based on your personal demands and the recommendations of your physician. Smile design is planned depending on your age, gender, facial shape, occupation and character. The most important point of smile design is that it restructures your smile while protecting your health and naturalness. When starting smile design, first the geometric shape suitable for your facial contours is identified. This is because the features of a person give the passwords of the required form of the teeth. Man and woman anatomies are completely different from each other. In women, the transition areas of the facial contours are softer, and the nasal hum and eyebrow arches are less prominent. In men, facial contours look sharper and more prominent. Their forehead, nose and chin ratio differs from that of women. In women, the tooth corners are softer, and the two teeth in the middle are longer than the ones at the sides. There are also small gaps between the corners of the neighboring teeth. In addition, the smiling line exhibits an upward curve. In men, the teeth lines are more prominent, and the neighboring teeth look flatter. In addition, the smiling line in men draws a slighter curve than that in women. Thanks to the smile design procedure, you can also get more healthy teeth in every respect.

How many types of smiles are there?

Smile expressions are generally divided into three. The first is sexy smile, the second is sophisticated smile, and the third is sporty smile. For a sexy smile, the central incisors (anterior teeth) should be noticeably longer than the rest of the teeth on the sides. Design your anterior teeth in this way gives you a young, dynamic and attractive smile. For a sophisticated smile, teeth aligned on a straight line (i.e. all have the same length) are needed. This smile gives a mature and wise expression to your face. For a sporty smile, your central incisors are required to be slightly longer than the rest of the incisor teeth on the sides. This smile will give you a sincere, extraordinary, and warm expression.

What is the purpose of the smile design?

Smile design is intended to eliminate tooth discolorations, misalignment or inappropriate position of one or more teeth, gaps caused by missing teeth, disproportion of the amount of apparent teeth and gums, ensure the gums to be aligned as required, and prevent discordant tooth lengths in the gums, and aged appearance caused by collapses on the face and lips due to missing teeth. Because all these problems will cause degradation of the patient’s aesthetic appearance, they are aimed to be eliminated with a smile design.

Which treatments are involved by smile design?

The smile design is determined based on the position and condition of the teeth. The procedure involves treatments intended to lengthen or shorten the teeth, correct tooth shapes, make the teeth thinner or thicker depending on their position, eliminate gum gaps, flatten the surface layer of the teeth, i.e. corner design including the squaring, pointing, rounding and filing processes.

What are the factors that influence smile design?

The factors that influence a person-specific smile design when determining it include age, gender, lips, facial contours, skin color, tooth alignment and gums.

In how many sessions is a smile design completed?

First the treatment to be performed is determined by considering the current dental condition and the oral health, and then the number of sessions will be determined accordingly. The treatment procedure can be concluded in a few weeks but may also take several months.

PERIODONTOLOGY

Periodontology

Periodontology is known to be a treatment of gingival diseases. It is the procedure that involves the treatment of diseases in the supporting tissues, i.e. the jaw bone, gums, tissues connecting the teeth to the bone, and adjacent tooth surfaces. Periodontal diseases are some sort of inflammatory diseases affecting the gums and the other tissues that support the teeth. When diagnosed at an early stage, such diseases can be treated very easily. Periodontal diseases affect the majority of the population. However, they are diseases with results and effects that advance sneaky.  A healthy gum looks slightly rough, and its border with the tooth is even and pink colored. A healthy gum does not bleed during brushing or eating. Periodontal diseases show their effect with gingival inflammation. A periodontal disease keeps advancing unless it is treated. During this process, the bone supporting the gums and teeth may cause damage.

What is Periodontitis?

Periodontitis is a more advanced form of periodontal diseases. Damage occurs in the tissues that support the teeth, as well as in the alveolar bone. As the disease progresses, the teeth begin get loose to an extent that requires extraction.

What are the signs and symptoms of periodontal diseases?

Their most obvious signs and symptoms include bad breath, gingival recession, loose teeth, sensitivity, gingival bleeding, inability of the teeth to interlock as in the past, newly emerged gaps between the teeth, sores in the mouth, and swelling and redness in the gums.

How can I prevent periodontal diseases?

First of all, the bacteria plaque should be regularly removed from the teeth on a daily basis, by means of a tooth brush, dental floss, and chemical products. Besides these, you should also regularly visit your dentist because tartar develops in areas unreachable by toothbrush and dental floss. Your dentist will make an oral care plan special for you, and carry out the required procedure.

How are gingival diseases treated?

Treatment of a gingival disease begins with the removal of dental plaques and tartar from the teeth in the early period. Surgical treatment can also be applied in advanced cases. In such a surgical treatment, tartar on the deeper spaces surrounding the teeth, which are called periodontal pockets, are cleaned, the pocket is eliminated with shrinkage method, a proper tooth surface is achieved, and a gingival form that can be easily cleaned is created. After periodontal treatment, the patient should be examined by the dentist and the required controls should be made on a regular basis.

RESTORATIVE DENTAL TREATMENT

Restorative Dental Treatment

Nowadays, the number of studies intended for the prevention of dental diseases gradually increase. Restorative dental treatment involves the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of all disorders or existing aesthetic problems associated with hard dental tissues, which develop due to bacterial or non-bacteria factors. Besides eliminating the patient’s complaints, restorative dental treatment also enables decayed, eroded, sensitive, discolored, gapped, and broken teeth as well as teeth with tissue anomalies to regain their missing functions and aesthetic appearance. The procedures that we perform in restorative dental treatment include early period caries diagnosis and treatment planning, conservative treatment approaches, composite and amalgam restorations, teeth whitening practices, computer aided aesthetic dentistry practices, porcelain restorations, and rehabilitation of anterior teeth with composite or ceramic laminates. Thanks to the laser and computer-aided technology we use; people with loss of hard dental tissue can be immediately treated, and aesthetic operations influencing your smile can also be performed on the same day.

What services are offered in restorative dental treatment?

Amalgam, composite and glass ionomer fillers.
Aesthetic approaches in dental traumas and tooth fractures.
Aesthetic restorations with direct and indirect composite and porcelain materials.
Treatment of dentin sensitivity.
Smile design.
Vital teeth whitening.
Vital pulp treatments.
Conservative dental treatments in geriatric and oncologic patients.
Individual anti-caries procedures in adults.
Pre-prosthetic restorations.

What Is Laminate Veneer?

Laminate Veneer is the fast and most reliable way for aesthetic restoration of the anterior teeth. There are 3 types of laminate veneers. These are ceramic laminate, aesthetic laminate and composite laminate. Porcelain laminate veneers are materials produced from ceramics, which are chemically bonded to the tooth structure. Composite laminate veneers can restore the deformed images of the teeth. They are added as composite materials to the outer surfaces of the anterior teeth, and then are shaped by the dentist as desired.

Who are suitable candidates for Laminate Veneer?

Laminate Veneer is applied to stained teeth, damaged teeth, crooked teeth, and gapped teeth. In restoration of stained teeth, teeth that have become stained due to a disease, or have lost their natural color due to food and drink consumption are treated with veneers. In restoration of damaged teeth, teeth that have become worn out due to improper use or teeth that have been broken during an accident are treated with porcelain Laminate Veneers. If you have gaps between your teeth, they can be easily covered with laminate veneers. In cases of crooked teeth, Laminate Veneers can be glued to the front sides of the teeth to obtain an aesthetically beautiful appearance.

How long does laminate veneer treatment take?

Laminate Veneer treatment is one of the treatment procedures that can be concluded within a day. However, if the Laminate Veneers are made from porcelain, the duration of the treatment will range from 5 to 6 days because it will also include a laboratory period.